All these routines are watched closely by the judges.
The horse stands on its hind quarters at an angle of 45 degrees from the floor and tucks his forelegs tightly and evenly against its chest. All its weight sits on his hind legs as he holds the pose for a few seconds.
It is a kind of dance that the horse executes while raising both the front and hind legs at the same time and rhythm. Both legs are lifted and paused in the air as the horse keeps the beat while remaining calm and relaxed during execution. The piaffe can be stationary on in a circular motion where only the front legs change place while the hind legs are completely raised from the ground but land in the same spot as the horse moves forward, backwards or in a circle going either way.
It is much the same as the Pesade but the body is kept at a harder angle of 30 to 35 degrees and held for a bit longer than the Pesade. After holding the pose, the horse outs its forelegs down gently and at the same time. This exercise requires a lot of strength and effort from the hind quarters.
Capriole. (goat leap)
The horse jumps with its hind legs pointing straight out to the back. The forelegs are stretched out too and he lands with all four legs at the same time. When you see it in the air. The horse appears to be effortlessly flying through the air.
Basically the same as the above but the horse does not kick out with his hind legs. He remains in the air with all four legs tucked in tightly. In a well-executed routine the horse remains for a few seconds in the air completely parallel to the ground without twitching a single muscle.
Same as above but the hooves are turned down instead of their natural position so the judge standing behind the horse can even see its shoes when it is in the air.
The horse stands on his hind legs and tucks his forelegs tightly to its chest jumping forward four or five times without putting its forelegs down. The horse “hops” on its hind legs while maintaining its posture and the rider holds his place like a marble statue too.
The horse stands on its hind quarters and strikes forward with his forelegs much in the same way it would do to defend itself in battle. It holds the stand for a second or two, drops his forelegs and rears again rhythmically and elegantly as the rider remains frozen on top of him.
Piroulette. (Whirl about)
This is a very synchronized, relaxed movement which is done by dressage horses. It involves the lateral movement of the forelegs while the hind legs remain in the same place. All four legs must be raised in cadence but only the front legs move in a circle making the horse turn sideways to either side without changing its actual position in the arena. In other words the front legs make a large circle while the hind legs make a smaller circle.
Any mistake or loss of rhythm will be taken into account during the closing ballot. There are certain rules that apply to some of these routines while others apply to all of them. The horse must remain balanced at all times. It cannot falter or make any false moves. When it is time to jump, all his legs must go into the air, at the same time and height. The horse must always keep and maintain the established rhythm. When it is moving in circles using the hind legs as support, the horse must move in an exact circle smaller than the one made by the front legs. If it moves in an oval shape, he is not doing things properly. The horse may never falter or step back so as to recuperate its balance or stance. Every step the horse takes must be equal to the others, not shorter or longer, always equal.